General Principles of Water Treatment

Photo: General Principles of Water Treatment

Water preparation processes comprise a wide range of technologies and physical-chemical methods. Methods must be selected with a view to the purpose of the use of the prepared water – the preparation of potable water requires a different approach from, e.g., the preparation of cooling water, feed water for boilers, or process water.



Applications

  • Potable water preparation plants for municipalities, waterworks companies – refurbishment, intensification
  • Preparation of very clean water – e.g., electrical industry, pharmaceutical and food-processing industry, feed water for boilers
  • Groundwater processing plants – in places where connection to the public distribution network is not possible
  • Rinsing water – glassworks, automotive industry, electrical industry, plastic production
  • Cooling water

Application of methods
In the process a wide range of physical-chemical methods can be used, e.g.:

    • Coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation – elimination of turbidity and colloid substances
    • Filtration – mechanical filters to remove rough particles, sand filters
    • Membrane processes – ultra-filtration, nano-filtration, reverse osmosis
    • Ion exchanger technologies – softening, removal of NO3 –, dealkalization, production of demineralised water
    • Adsorption – arsenic removal, active carbon to remove foul odours and tastes
    • Degasification – reduction of oxygen, CO2, and radon (mostly groundwater) content
    • Oxidation, reduction – Fe removal, chlorination to reduce microbial propagation.

Applications

  • Potable water preparation plants for municipalities, waterworks companies – refurbishment, intensification
  • Preparation of very clean water – e.g., electrical industry, pharmaceutical and food-processing industry, feed water for boilers
  • Groundwater processing plants – in places where connection to the public distribution network is not possible
  • Rinsing water – glassworks, automotive industry, electrical industry, plastic production
  • Cooling water